deutscher MwSt. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad after his death in 632 CE (AH 11). Under the Rashidun, each region (Sultanate) of the caliphate had its own governor (Sultan). A scion of the family was invited a few years later to establish a puppet caliphate in Cairo that lasted until 1517, but it exercised no power whatsoever.
Für mehr Details lesen Sie bitte die Nutzungsbedingungen der jeweiligen Promotion. Geben Sie einen Promotionscode oder einen Geschenkgutschein ein. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Momentanes Problem beim Laden dieses Menüs. This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad’s companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated the successor by Muhammad at Ghadir Khumm. Enthält dieses Buch unangemessene Inhalte? The caliph al-Nāṣir (1180–1225) achieved a certain success in dealing diplomatically with various threats from the east, but al-Mustaʿṣim (1242–58) had no such success and was murdered in the Mongol sack of Baghdad that ended the ʿAbbāsid line in that city. Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. Entdecken Sie jetzt alle Amazon Prime-Vorteile. Even so, within this brief time Muslim armies have begun their astonishing expansion, subduing the whole of Arabia and striking as far north as Palestine. Wählen Sie die Kategorie aus, in der Sie suchen möchten. Diese eBooks können nur von Empfängern im gleichen Land eingelöst werden. ʿAbbāsid power ended in 945, when the Būyids, a family of rough tribesmen from northwestern Iran, took Baghdad under their rule. Hinzufügen war nicht erfolgreich. Umar ibn Khattab, the second caliph, was killed by a Persian named Piruz Nahavandi. After Muhammad’s death and the rebellion of several tribes, Abu Bakr initiated several military campaigns to bring Arabia under Islam and into the caliphate. Muawiyah, a relative of Uthman and governor (Wali) of Syria, became one of Ali’s challengers, and after Ali’s assassination managed to overcome the other claimants to the caliphate. During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each …

The minority Islamic branch that believes Muhammad appointed his cousin Ali as his successor and that the caliph should be decided based on this family lineage. The head of state's position (Caliph) is based on the notion of a successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad 's political authority. Um die Gesamtbewertung der Sterne und die prozentuale Aufschlüsselung nach Sternen zu berechnen, verwenden wir keinen einfachen Durchschnitt. Wählen Sie eine Sprache für Ihren Einkauf. In areas that were previously under Sassanid Persian or Byzantine rule, the caliphs lowered taxes, provided greater local autonomy (to their delegated governors), granted greater religious freedom for Jews and some indigenous Christians, and brought peace to peoples demoralized and disaffected by the casualties and heavy taxation that resulted from the decades of Byzantine-Persian warfare. The Shiʿah and similar groups, including the Qarmaṭians in Syria and the Fāṭimids in North Africa, challenged ʿAbbāsid rule on religious as well as political grounds. Wir verwenden Cookies und ähnliche Tools, um Ihr Einkaufserlebnis zu verbessern, um unsere Dienste anzubieten, um zu verstehen, wie die Kunden unsere Dienste nutzen, damit wir Verbesserungen vornehmen können, und um Werbung anzuzeigen.
Sie suchen preisreduzierte Fachbücher von Amazon Warehouse Deals? Ali was Muhammad’s first cousin and closest living male relative, as well as his son-in-law, having married Muhammad’s daughter Fatimah. The Rashidun Caliphate (632–661) was led by Abu Bakr, then by Umar ibn Khattab as the second caliph, Uthman Ibn Affan as the third caliph, and Ali as the fourth caliph. Uthman was killed by members of a disaffected group. After a series of successful campaigns, Abu Bakr’s general Khalid ibn Walid defeated a competing prophet and the Arabian peninsula was united under the caliphate in Medina. Stattdessen betrachtet unser System Faktoren wie die Aktualität einer Rezension und ob der Rezensent den Artikel bei Amazon gekauft hat. Rezension aus den Vereinigten Staaten vom 21. Abu Bakr, the first caliph, lives no more than two years after the death of Muhammad. …he terminated and replaced the caliphate. Muhammad’s prominent companion Umar ibn al-Khattab nominated Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s friend and collaborator. Dieser Artikel hat eine maximale Bestellmenge. This period is known as the Fitna, or the first Islamic civil war. Einlöse-Links und eBooks können nicht weiterverkauft werden. Zugelassene Drittanbieter verwenden diese Tools auch in Verbindung mit der Anzeige von Werbung durch uns. By that time the ʿAbbāsids had begun to regain some semblance of their former power, as the Seljuq dynasty of sultans in Baghdad, which had replaced the Būyids in 1055, itself began to decay. Ich möchte dieses Buch auf dem Kindle lesen. Diese Aktionen werden auf diesen Artikel angewendet: Einige Angebote können miteinander kombiniert werden, andere nicht. Outside extremist circles, the group’s claim was widely rejected. info)), a person considered a politico-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire Muslim Community (ummah). Abu Bakr is succeeded in 634 by Omar (another father-in-law of Muhammad), who in 638 captures Jerusalem. After Muhammad’s death in 632 CE, his friend Abu Bakr was named caliph and ruler of the Islamic community, or Ummah.