Öljei, Grand Councilor of the Right [d. 1303] Sayyid Boyan al-Dīn, Finance Minister. By 1273, Kublai had blockaded the Yangzi River with his navy and besieged Xiangyang, the last obstacle in his way to capture the rich Yangzi River basin. Mahumud Shah and Hasan Khoja managed the Bureau of Military Affairs. [41] During his lifetime, Kublai Khan built the capital of the Yuan, Khanbaliq at the site of present-day central Beijing and made Shangdu (上都, "Upper Capital", known to Marco Polo as Xanadu) the summer capital. Crown Prince Deshou [d. 1306] Empress-Dowager Kököchin. [18] He died in 1259 without a successor. Toghon Temür's mother was Mailaiti, descendant of Arslan Khan, the chief of the Karluks.

However, during the Song dynasty, paper money was used alongside the coins. To secure support as Emperor of China from the Chinese populace, he duly showed his respect for the Confucian tradition from the beginning of his reign. He adopted many measures honoring Confucianism and promoting Chinese cultural values. Hülegü, another brother of Kublai Khan, ruled his Ilkhanate and paid homage to the Great Khan but actually established an autonomous khanate, and after Ilkhan Ghazan's enthronement in 1295, Kublai's successor Emperor Chengzong sent him a seal reading "王府定國理民之寶" in Chinese script to symbolize this. Kublai Khan was seen as a martial emperor, reforming much of China and its institutions, a process that would have taken decades to complete. Chinese officials repeatedly urged Yesün Temür to extend the purge to all former allies of Temuder and Tegshi and their families, but Yesün Temür Khan refused. [21] A rival kurultai in Mongolia proclaimed Ariq Böke Great Khan, beginning a civil war. He kept the empire the way Kublai Khan left it though he did not make any great achievements. Instead he fled into the steppes of Inner Mongolia and died there two years later, ending the dynasty.

This resulted in Toghun Temür's restoration of power on the one hand and a rapid weakening of the central government on the other. With the dismissal of Bayan, Toghtogha seized the power of the court. However, the attempts to establish such tributary relationships were rebuffed and expeditions to Japan (twice), Dai Viet (twice during Kublai's rule[b]), and Java, would later meet with less success. [36] In 1271, Khanbaliq officially became the capital of the Yuan dynasty. Kublai was unable to read Chinese, but had several Han Chinese teachers attached to him since his early years by his mother Sorghaghtani. Shi Bingzhi was married to a Jurchen woman (surname Na-ho) and a Han Chinese woman (surname Chang), it is unknown which of them was Shi Tianze's mother.